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Productie van honing , wijn en wol zijn, samen met het ecotoerisme , de belangrijkste economische pijlers van het eiland.
Kangaroo Island werd ongeveer Aboriginals hebben het eiland enige tijd bewoond. In werd Kangaroo Island ontdekt en benoemd door de Engelse ontdekkingsreiziger Matthew Flinders.
Hij werd gevolgd door de Fransman Nicolas Baudin , die een groot deel van Kangaroo Island in kaart bracht. Tegenwoordig dragen verschillende plaatsen op het eiland nog steeds een Franstalige naam.
De belangrijkste trekpleister van Kangaroo Island is de natuur. Het eiland is grotendeels begroeid met eucalyptusbossen en boomsavannes.
Belangrijke redenen voor het feit dat Kangaroo Island zo'n rijke natuur heeft, zijn dat meer dan de helft van het eiland nooit gecultiveerd is en dat ongeveer een derde van het oppervlakte bestaat uit beschermd gebied.
The biggest town on Kangaroo Island is Kingscote. Originally established at Reeves Point on 27 July , it is South Australia's first colonial settlement.
It was later suggested that Kingscote could serve as the capital of South Australia, but the island's resources were insufficient to support such a large community, so the settlement of Adelaide was chosen.
There are several smaller towns on the island. Penneshaw , the second largest town on Kangaroo Island, has a population of around and is located on the north eastern tip of the Dudley Peninsula, on the eastern end of the island.
It contains the ferry terminal, which brings most of the visitors to the island, along with all the necessary freight to sustain the local population.
Parndana , in the centre of the island, has a population of about , but most do not live in the town; they are sprawled within a few kilometres. The historic area to the south-east of the township, known as the Research Centre to locals, was home to the research station that was set up in the s and s to research the viability of agriculture in the area and still has a small settlement of about 20 people.
American River , on the north coast between Kingscote and Penneshaw , has about residents. Penneshaw and Parndana each have basic facilities, including a general store and fuel and are home to hotels.
Facilities such as banking and large supermarkets are available in Kingscote and Penneshaw. According to the Census, the island has a population of 4, Censuses show the number of residents aged over 55 increased from The economy is mostly agricultural grapes, honey, wool, meat and grain.
Traditionally, sheep grazing has been the key element in agriculture on the Island; however, in recent times, more diverse crops, such as potatoes and canola , have been introduced.
Cattle farming has grown as well, with good quality beef cattle being grown in the higher rainfall areas. Tourism and fishing also play significant roles, with the island experiencing over , visitors per annum, and some of the best southern rock lobster being sourced from the island's rugged south coast.
Kangaroo Island has South Australia's only eucalyptus oil distillery, with oil distilled from the endemic Kangaroo Island narrow leaf mallee.
The future of over 19, hectares, which had been planted or were due to be planted with blue gum for future harvesting, is now in doubt, following the collapse of Great Southern Plantation Ltd in May The island has 30 wine growers and 12 wineries.
The first vineyard was planted near Eastern Cove in and the first wine made in The Florance vineyard was established under supervision of B.
Hayes, who produced its first wine — Eastern Cove Cygnet — and introduced it at the University of South Australia in Kangaroo Island is noted for its honey and its Ligurian honey bees.
The island has the world's only pure-bred and disease-free population of this type of bee. The exporting of pure-bred queen bees is a notable industry for the island.
For this reason, there are significant quarantine restrictions on bringing bee products and bee-handling equipment onto the island.
Carroll, a bee master, near Brisbane, for a swarm of Ligurian bees. Bonney quickly commenced queen bee breeding near Adelaide at his Upper Kensington apiary in January In the South Australian Advertiser , 7 March , Bonney stated "About three weeks ago I divided the original colony, and the Chamber of Manufactures now possesses three good swarms of Ligurians; two of these will probably be ready to send out towards the end of the month.
The Kangaroo Island Council provides local government for the entire island and was formed in , following amalgamation of the previous District Councils of Kingscote and Dudley.
A enquiry into the financial sustainability of local government in South Australia determined that 26 out of 68 councils in South Australia were considered unsustainable in the long term.
On 13 May , a development plan was authorised, representing a comprehensive review of Kangaroo Island's planning regulations.
Kangaroo Island has several organised sporting competitions, including Australian rules football see Kangaroo Island Football League , cricket , darts , go kart racing , lawn bowls , netball , sailing, softball , squash and tennis.
Kangaroo Island is connected to the main South Australian power grid by a pair of 33kV subsea cables across Backstairs Passage.
Before the new cable was commissioned, University of Technology Sydney conducted a study to assess the viability of renewable energy technology being used to independently generate the island's power with a combination of wind , solar and biomass.
The Kangaroo Island power station has three 2MWe Caterpillar B diesel generators capable of providing a combined 6MW through the Kingscote substation to provide stability of supply if the submarine cables are unavailable.
Kangaroo Island is reliant on ferry services for the majority of its transport to and from the mainland. Ferry services are currently provided by two companies, Kangaroo Island SeaLink which uses two ferries, the Sealion and the Spirit of Kangaroo Island , to provide freight and passenger services, and Kangaroo Island Connect, which commenced services in June and provides passenger services only.
From to , SS Karatta was the prime freight and passenger vessel operating between Port Adelaide and Kingscote. Troubridge was a roll on, roll off vessel of 1, tons, which used specially designed loading gantries at Port Adelaide , Port Lincoln and Kingscote.
Island Seaway was severely criticised as being unsuitable for the Backstairs Passage crossing. Seventy-five sheep and cattle died on the inaugural trip due to carbon monoxide poisoning, and the ship was once described as 'steering like a shopping trolley'.
His "Philanderer Ferries" pioneered the crossing from Cape Jervis to Penneshaw, with Philanderer 3 being a passenger and vehicle carrying catamaran style vessel.
During the s, two passenger only services, Hydroflite H33 , and Islander , operated for a short time from Glenelg to Kingscote. SeaLink has outlasted several competing companies since it began operations.
Boat Torque, a Western Australian company, operated Superflyte from until , sailing from Glenelg to Kingscote. SeaWay could not handle rough weather as well as SeaLink vessels which impacted the service's reliability.
Under different proprietorship, SeaWay recommenced services in August With the introduction by SeaLink of the Island Navigator , the fate of Island Seaway was sealed, with the service subsequently withdrawn and SeaLink drawing on Government subsidies to operate all freight services to and from the Island.
SeaLink now holds a virtual monopoly on sea transport to Kangaroo Island, primarily due to its long term lease of the Cape Jervis berth. Sealink's agreement with the SA Government, expiring in , precludes other operators from using the Cape Jervis facility for one hour before, and one hour after any scheduled SeaLink service.
Kangaroo Island residents have expressed displeasure with the exclusive arrangement granted to SeaLink. Guinea Airways operated the first commercial service to Kangaroo Island, commencing in the s.
The airline's final service was on 4 April A Piaggio P was used infrequently in the s, whilst Rossair operated Cessna s in an arrangement with ASA to replace the F27s in off-peak times.
In competition with the larger aircraft, and generally with more flexible timetables, a succession of smaller airlines from the s tried with varying success to maintain a 'second string' presence.
Island Air and Pagas operated briefly in the s, whilst the most successful, Emu Airways , commenced in and made its final flight in November [ citation needed ].
Emu flew Piper Chieftain aircraft to Kingscote, American River, Penneshaw and Parndana, before air regulations dictated abandonment of all airstrips except Kingscote.
For several years during the s, Commodore Airlines eventually becoming State Air offered another alternative service. QantasLink briefly operated a service after the demise of Emu Airways, commencing 18 December , but withdrew less than six months later.
QantasLink also operated direct flights from Kangaroo Island to Melbourne, the first time the route was operated. In June , Qantas announced direct Qantaslink flights to Kangaroo Island from Adelaide and Melbourne from December , offering five flights a week from Adelaide over the peak summer months, reducing to three flights a week after Easter, and two flights a week from Melbourne over the peak tourist season in December and January.
It was sold to domestic and industrial users, e. The salt exports from Kangaroo Island to Adelaide rose from 13 tons in to 20, tons in Having a warm-summer Mediterranean climate Csb , the winters between June and September are mild and wet, the summers usually warm and dry.
The wettest month is July. Nearly half of the island has never been cleared of vegetation,  and a quarter of it is conserved in National Parks , Conservation Parks , and five Wilderness Protection Areas.
Because of its isolation from mainland Australia, foxes and rabbits are absent from and prohibited from entering the island. Registration and microchipping of cats is mandatory,  and since there is a program to eradicate an estimated population of between 3, and 5, cats within the next 15 years.
The Kangaroo Island kangaroo , Rosenberg's sand goanna , southern brown bandicoot , tammar wallaby , common brushtail possum , short-beaked echidna , Australian sea lion and long-nosed fur seal are native to the island, as well as six bat and frog species.
The sole endemic vertebrate species is a small marsupial carnivore, the Kangaroo Island dunnart. The koala , common ringtail possum and platypus have been introduced and still survive there.
The introduced koalas have flourished on the island, to the degree that their preferred food source, the manna gum , is at risk of local extinction.
The idea of a cull of the burgeoning koala numbers is distasteful to the public, and the state government prefers to use sterilisation for population control.
Conservation interests have come into conflict with proponents of various development proposals made since the s. These include a helipad in the island's south-western wilderness,  a southern bluefin tuna pen on the north coast of the island  which resulted in the withdrawal of the proposal , The Cliffs Golf Resort near Pennington Bay for which Crown land was considered for private sale or lease to developers  and a port proposal at Smith Bay to facilitate timber exports  and cruise ship visitation.
An endemic species of emu , the Kangaroo Island emu , became extinct between and Kangaroo Island has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area IBA because it supports populations of the vulnerable fairy tern , the near threatened bush stone-curlew , hooded plover and western whipbird , and the biome -restricted rock parrot and purple-gaped honeyeater.
Little penguin colonies at Penneshaw and Kingscote can be accessed by joining guided nocturnal tours. Both colonies are currently in decline. Several colonies elsewhere on the island are believed to now be extinct, or contain only 'a few' birds.
The decline of penguin populations has prompted expanded monitoring regimes from to the present.
The Kangaroo Island little penguin census revealed that numbers had decreased by 44 to per cent at all surveyed colonies over the prior two years.
The census included eight survey sites. Lightning strikes on Thursday 6 December caused several fires on the Island.
In January the island was one of many places nationwide affected by bushfire as part of the — Australian bushfire season.
A bushfire emergency warning was issued on 3 January as the fire advanced towards Vivonne Bay and the town of Parndana was evacuated.
Two people died on Kangaroo Island due to the fires. The northern coast of Kangaroo Island contains important fossil-bearing deposits, dating from the late Lower Cambrian , such as the Emu Bay Shale late Botomian , million years old.
A few genera of non-biomineralized arthropods, among them Squamacula , Kangacaris , and the megacheiran Tanglangia , are known only from the Emu Bay Shale and Chengjiang.
The depositional environment of the majority of Burgess-Shale-type assemblages is outer shelf, deeper water. The Emu Bay Shale in contrast, appears to represent deposition in restricted basins on the inner shelf, indicating that soft tissue preservation occurred in a range of environmental settings during the Cambrian.
Het Guugu Yimidhirr is de taal die gesproken wordt door de oorspronkelijke bevolking van de streek. Volgens een wijdverspreide mythe komt het woord kangoeroe van 'kagoroo' wat in het Guugu Yimidhirr ik versta je niet zou betekenen.
Volgens het verhaal waren luitenant James Cook en de natuurkundige Sir Joseph Banks de streek aan het verkennen toen ze het dier zagen.
Ze vroegen aan een inboorling wat de naam was van het dier. Die antwoordde: kagoroo. Zo zou de Engelse naam 'kangaroo' voor het dier zijn geboren.
In de jaren zeventig heeft de antropoloog John Beard Haviland dit verhaal ontkracht nadat hij onderzoek deed bij het Guugu Yimidhirrvolk. Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie.
Dawson, bladzijde 8, Figure 1. Oceania 44 3 : — Categorie : Kangoeroe. Naamruimten Artikel Overleg. Weergaven Lezen Bewerken Brontekst bewerken Geschiedenis.
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