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Platinum Deutsch

Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "platinum alloy" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'platinum' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Platin (Deutschland: [ˈplaːtiːn], Österreich: [ plaˈtiːn]) ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine.

Deutsch-Englisch-Wörterbuch

Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'platinum' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. (symbol Pt) an element, a heavy, valuable grey/gray metal, often used in making jewellery/jewelry. das Platin, Platin- (also adjective) a. Übersetzung für 'platinum' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.

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Platinum Deutsch Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für platinum im Online-Wörterbuch hope4stroke.com (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für platinum im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'platinum' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Übersetzung im Kontext von „platinum“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context​: platinum group, platinum plus, platinum catalyst, gold and platinum, platinum. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition hope4stroke.com name is derived from the Spanish term platino, meaning "little silver".. Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of hope4stroke.com has six naturally occurring isotopes. Pokemon - Platinum Version rom for Nintendo DS (NDS) und spielen Pokemon - Platinum Version auf Ihren Geräten Windows PC, mac,ios and android! Bestellen Sie hier direkt beim Hersteller. PLATINUM Trockenfutter, Nassfutter oder Pflegeartikel versandkostenfrei liefern lassen!

It has remarkable resistance to corrosion , even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal.

Consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts.

It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in that it began to be investigated by scientists.

Platinum is used in catalytic converters , laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes , platinum resistance thermometers , dentistry equipment, and jewelry.

Being a heavy metal , it leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts ; but due to its corrosion resistance, metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects.

Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductile , and malleable , silver-white metal. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid , but dissolves in hot aqua regia A mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids , to form chloroplatinic acid , H 2 PtCl 6.

Its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. As is expected, tetracoordinate platinum II compounds tend to adopt electron square planar geometries.

Although elemental platinum is generally unreactive, it dissolves in hot aqua regia to give aqueous chloroplatinic acid H 2 PtCl 6 : [16]. As a soft acid , platinum has a great affinity for sulfur, such as on dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO ; numerous DMSO complexes have been reported and care should be taken in the choice of reaction solvent.

In , Gerhard Ertl won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the detailed molecular mechanisms of the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum catalytic converter.

The most abundant of these is Pt, comprising Of the naturally occurring isotopes, only Pt is unstable, though it decays with a half-life of 6. Platinum also has 34 synthetic isotopes ranging in atomic mass from to , making the total number of known isotopes Most platinum isotopes decay by some combination of beta decay and alpha decay.

Platinum is an extremely rare metal, [20] occurring at a concentration of only 0. Platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum and as alloy with the other platinum-group metals and iron mostly.

Most often the native platinum is found in secondary deposits in alluvial deposits. Another large alluvial deposit is in the Ural Mountains , Russia, and it is still mined.

In nickel and copper deposits, platinum-group metals occur as sulfides e. Pt,Pd S , tellurides e. PtBiTe , antimonides PdSb , and arsenides e.

PtAs 2 , and as end alloys with nickel or copper. Platinum arsenide, sperrylite PtAs 2 , is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario , Canada.

The mine ceased operations in In , chromites were identified in the Bushveld region of South Africa, followed by the discovery of platinum in In the Sudbury Basin, the huge quantities of nickel ore processed make up for the fact platinum is present as only 0.

Smaller reserves can be found in the United States, [27] for example in the Absaroka Range in Montana. Large platinum deposits are present in the state of Tamil Nadu , India.

Platinum exists in higher abundances on the Moon and in meteorites. Correspondingly, platinum is found in slightly higher abundances at sites of bolide impact on Earth that are associated with resulting post-impact volcanism, and can be mined economically; the Sudbury Basin is one such example.

Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds.

By itself, it has various applications in photography, zinc etchings, indelible ink , plating, mirrors, porcelain coloring, and as a catalyst.

Treatment of hexachloroplatinic acid with an ammonium salt, such as ammonium chloride , gives ammonium hexachloroplatinate , [16] which is relatively insoluble in ammonium solutions.

Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. Potassium hexachloroplatinate is similarly insoluble, and hexachloroplatinic acid has been used in the determination of potassium ions by gravimetry.

When hexachloroplatinic acid is heated, it decomposes through platinum IV chloride and platinum II chloride to elemental platinum, although the reactions do not occur stepwise: [34].

All three reactions are reversible. Platinum II and platinum IV bromides are known as well. Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizer capable of oxidizing oxygen.

Platinum IV oxide , PtO 2 , also known as ' Adams' catalyst ', is a black powder that is soluble in potassium hydroxide KOH solutions and concentrated acids.

Unlike palladium acetate , platinum II acetate is not commercially available. Where a base is desired, the halides have been used in conjunction with sodium acetate.

Zeise's salt , containing an ethylene ligand, was one of the first organometallic compounds discovered. Dichloro cycloocta-1,5-diene platinum II is a commercially available olefin complex, which contains easily displaceable cod ligands "cod" being an abbreviation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene.

The cod complex and the halides are convenient starting points to platinum chemistry. Cisplatin , or cis -diamminedichloroplatinum II is the first of a series of square planar platinum II -containing chemotherapy drugs.

These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA , and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents.

Archaeologists have discovered traces of platinum in the gold used in ancient Egyptian burials as early as BC. For example, a small box from burial of Shepenupet II was found to be decorated with gold-platinum hieroglyphics.

It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold. The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy.

Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the La Tolita Culture circa BC - AD , but precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than obtained by direct archeological excavation.

The resulting gold-platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities.

Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable.

Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in , Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal. In , he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica.

In , Charles Wood, [53] a British metallurgist , found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.

In , after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society , stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.

In , Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.

Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion.

Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia , precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride , igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere.

Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic.

Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the list , Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.

Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium , amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.

Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.

Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron.

This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals.

This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle.

Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain.

Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals , is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.

During electrorefining of copper , noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.

If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities. Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid.

Platinum is paramagnetic , whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture.

Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum.

Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them. Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum.

One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia , in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted.

The gold is precipitated by the addition of iron II chloride and after filtering off the gold, the platinum is precipitated as ammonium chloroplatinate by the addition of ammonium chloride.

Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating. If you make payment in a currency which is different to the currency of your Bank or credit card statements, then please note the price quoted may differ slightly from that charged to you due to currency fluctuations.

We may need to review our prices if the cost of delivering the Products to you or if the cost of any resources or materials used by us changes, and such change is beyond our reasonable control.

Payment Details on how to pay are set out in the Payment section on our Website. You agree that Platinum Health Europe may take commercially reasonable actions to validate your payment and account details.

You will not be charged for items until they are ready to be dispatched. We will not dispatch the Product to you until we receive payment.

Personal Information All use of your personal information will be in accordance with our Privacy Policy. Our Privacy Policy does not apply to any websites accessible via our Website that are operated by third parties.

Liability Our Website is provided without any warranties or guarantees. You must bear the risks associated with the use of the Internet.

The services provided by this Website are provided on an "as is" and "as available" basis. We are not responsible to you if we are unable to provide the Website or any Products for any reason beyond our control.

Our Website may provide content from other Internet sites or resources and while we try to ensure that material included on our Website is correct, reputable and of high quality, we cannot accept responsibility if this is not the case.

We will not be responsible for any errors or omissions or for the results obtained from the use of such information or for any technical problems you may experience with our Website.

If we are informed of any inaccuracies in the material on the Website we will attempt to correct the inaccuracies as soon as we reasonably can.

Your exclusive remedy, so far as permitted by your local laws, in respect of any claim for breach of contract, negligence or otherwise in relation to the Products shall be limited to replacement of the relevant Product or a refund of the amount you have paid for the Product.

Your statutory rights are not affected. Neither you nor Platinum Health Europe will be responsible for any losses that the other suffers as a result of a breach of these Terms except those losses which are a foreseeable consequence of the breach.

Neither party will be responsible for indirect losses which happen as a side-effect of the main loss or damage and which are not foreseeable by Platinum Health Europe and you such as loss of profits or loss of data.

If you are not happy with the products, please contact Customer Service within 60 days of receipt of the package for our money back guarantee.

English Customer Service: Support platinumeurope. If you receive a return label for a free product return from Customer Service, please attach it to the outside of the package.

Platinum Packs, Enrollment Packs and Business Packs must be returned in their entirety in good condition unless pre-approved by Platinum Customer Service for a partial return.

Returns must be received at our warehouse within 60 days of the date the original package was received by the customer. Returns received past the 60 day window will be rejected unless prior approval for credit has been attained.

It takes approximately 2 — 3 weeks for returns to be processed. Please let us know whether you would like your refund returned to the credit card or to the bank account used to pay for the original.

We cannot refund a credit card or refund to a bank account other than the one used on the original order. Please let us know up front whether the credit card used on the order or the bank account is still valid.

Please consult your local customs authority for your local tax and duty rate on nutritional supplements. Platinum is not responsible for having that information readily available.

Please note that if a package is returned to Platinum as a result of a dispute with customs, the customer in question will be liable for the outbound and return shipping.

The guarantee applies only towards products. There is no guarantee on Enrollment Packs or business tools.

All refunds are handled at the discretion of Platinum Healths' management. Please note that standard refunds will not include any shipping fees incurred by the customer.

In the event of a Company error or the receipt of damaged goods, please call Customer Service for more information. All orders ship during regular business hours.

When choosing your shipping method please be advised of the following:. General You may not assign otherwise or transfer any of your rights or benefits under these Terms.

A copy of an electronic communication made by reliable means is considered to have the same validity as the original electronic communication.

If you breach these Terms and we ignore this, we will still be entitled to use our rights and remedies at a later date or in any other situation where you breach the Terms.

If any part of these Terms is found to be invalid by any court with competent jurisdiction the invalidity of that provision shall not affect the other provisions of these Terms which shall remain in full force and effect.

No waiver or any provision of these Terms shall be effective unless it is made in writing. Neither party will be considered liable for any delay or failure to perform its obligations under these Terms to the extent that such delay or failure is due to any cause or circumstance beyond that party's reasonable control and that failure or delay could not have been prevented or overcome by that party acting reasonably and prudently.

These terms shall be governed by and interpreted in accordance with the law of the Netherlands and the parties submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts in the Netherlands in relation to any disputes arising out of or in connection with these Terms.

Ethical Principles Independent Platinum Europe distributors are obliged to always conduct their business in ethical, moral and professional terms.

Platinum Europe requires all independent distributors in their organisation to comply with the letter and spirit of these principles in their business activities.

Responsibilities and Rights of the Independent Platinum Distributor The task of independent Platinum distributors is to sell Platinum products and services.

They can also make use of the bonus plan and sponsor new independent Platinum distributors in all those countries in which the company is present.

They are obliged in their contractual activities to comply with the provisions of the Platinum sales and marketing system as well as the instructions of the company, Platinum Europe, which serve the effectiveness and integrity of this system as well as the smooth and effective process of cooperation under the system.

Independent Platinum distributors are not entitled to tie the company to any obligation. Compliance with the Law Every independent Platinum distributor must conduct their business in accordance with the laws, ordinances and other provisions of the country in which they are registered.

They alone are responsible for complying with all the legal provisions applicable to them and their business. For this status to remain active the distributor must make at least one purchase every 12 months.

If they do not order any products from Platinum for 12 months, their distributor status becomes inactive. The distributor loses their independent distributor position at Platinum and the independent distributors in their downline shift up to the next active independent Platinum distributor.

This rule does not apply to organisations that are non-profit generators. If the distributor loses their active distributor status, they must purchase a new starter kit and submit a new distributor application in order to become an independent Platinum distributor again.

Sales Activities An independent Platinum advisor who wishes to sell a sales aid or service to another independent Platinum distributor, which is not sourced from Platinum but which supports the Platinum product or business opportunity, must first obtain written permission from Platinum.

An independent Platinum distributor who personally sells literature, sales aids or services that relate to Platinum but are not derived from Platinum, may not induce or try to induce other Platinum distributors they have not sponsored personally, to buy or sell such literature, sales aids or services.

Independent Platinum distributors may sell products and services that are not derived from Platinum if they so wish. However, they may not exploit their knowledge of or connection with other independent Platinum distributors who they have not sponsored personally to promote or expand this other business.

The recruitment of distributors not personally sponsored is strictly prohibited. Only One 1 Distributor Position Individual independent distributors may only hold one Platinum distributor position.

Married Couples Spouses are regarded as contractors but they may also hold two distributor positions, if one spouse is sponsoring the other.

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